List of every major Thirty Years' War battle, including photos, images, or maps of the most famous Thirty Years' War battles when available. [112], In 1940, agrarian historian Günther Franz published Der Dreissigjährige Krieg und das Deutsche Volk, a detailed analysis of regional data from across Germany; his membership of the Nazi Party meant his objectivity was challenged post-1945, but recent reviews support his general findings. Paperback $17.15 $ 17. The aim of this paper is to outline the main themes of Wiesner-Hanks’ discussion of the war… This resulted in the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, making peace with France and Sweden respectively. Prompted by France, the rebels proclaimed the Catalan Republic in January 1641. The political disintegration of the Polish commonwealth led to the 1655 to 1660 Second Northern War with Sweden, which also involved Denmark, Russia and Brandenburg, while two Swedish attempts to impose its control on the port of Bremen failed in 1654 and 1666. At the same time, the Swedes under Johan Banér marched into Brandenburg; victory at Wittstock on 4 October 1636 regained most of the ground lost after Nördlingen. The Thirty Years’ War had a profound impact on Europe, and some of the consequences of this war … This included ambitious Imperial states like Lutheran Saxony and Catholic Bavaria, as well as France, which faced Habsburg territories on its borders in Flanders, Franche-Comté, and the Pyrenees. History of Europe - History of Europe - The Thirty Years’ War: The war originated with dual crises at the continent’s centre: one in the Rhineland and the other in Bohemia, both part of the Holy Roman Empire. Quiet ‘Hero’ Marks 30 Years Restoring Limbs, and Dignity, in War. The 1555 Peace of Augsburg was intended to end conflict between German Protestants and Catholics by establishing the principle of cuius regio, eius religio. The strategic importance of the Duchy of Mantua meant when the direct male line became extinct in December 1627, both powers became involved in the 1628 to 1631 War of the Mantuan Succession. Maximilian was desperate to end the war he was largely responsible for starting, while Mazarin feared Sweden becoming too strong; on 14 March 1647, Bavaria, Cologne, France, and Sweden signed the Truce of Ulm. Its major belligerents included France, Sweden, Austria, Denmark, and numerous princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Imperial Armies of the Thirty Years’ War (1): Infantry and artillery (Men-at-Arms) by Vladimir Brnardic and Darko Pavlovic | Oct 27, 2009. [96] The Dutch were also given a monopoly over trade conducted through the Scheldt estuary, confirming the commercial ascendancy of Amsterdam; Antwerp, capital of the Spanish Netherlands and previously the most important port in Northern Europe, would not recover until the late 19th century. [45], With Saxony dominating the Upper Saxon Circle and Brandenburg the Lower, both kreis had remained neutral during the campaigns in Bohemia and the Palatinate. [38], By abandoning Frederick, the German princes hoped to restrict the dispute to Bohemia, but Maximilian's dynastic ambitions made this impossible. This view is now generally accepted by historians. [76], These setbacks put increasing pressure on both Ferdinand and Spanish minister Olivares to make peace. [23], As a result, when the Imperial Diet opened in February 1608, the Protestants demanded formal confirmation of the Augsburg settlement, which was especially significant for Calvinists like Frederick IV, Elector Palatine who had not been included. It was in part a political war among shifting alliances of … Transylvania (until 1621)[1] All across Europe, but mostly in central Germany WHO? [130] Although the Franco-Spanish conflict continued until 1659 and Spain remained a global force for another two centuries, Westphalia allowed Louis XIV of France to complete the process of replacing her as the predominant European power. [27], Since Emperor Matthias had no surviving children, in July 1617 Philip III of Spain agreed to support Ferdinand's election as king of Bohemia and Hungary. Jun 2nd 2011. [79] Mazarin began seeking a negotiated peace; 25 years of constant war had devastated the countryside, forcing armies to spend more time foraging than fighting, and drastically reducing their ability to sustain campaigns. [90] Combined with the diversion of Imperial resources caused by Swedish intervention in 1630, this led to the Treaty of Cherasco in June 1631. The United Netherlands was recognized as an independent republic. Over the next eighteen months, Spanish and Catholic League forces won a series of victories; by November 1622, they controlled most of the Palatinate, apart from Frankenthal, held by a small English garrison under Sir Horace Vere. [57], Once again, the methods used to obtain victory explain why the war failed to end. The Peace consisted of three separate agreements; the Peace of Münster between Spain and the Dutch Republic, the treaty of Osnabrück between the Empire and Sweden, plus the treaty of Münster between the Empire and France. [34], By mid-June, the Bohemian army under Thurn was outside Vienna; Mansfeld's defeat by Spanish-Imperial forces at Sablat forced him to return to Prague, but Ferdinand's position continued to worsen. [116], The breakdown of social order caused by the war was in some ways more significant and longer lasting than the immediate damage. [30] Focused on retaking the Netherlands, the Spanish Habsburgs preferred to avoid antagonising Protestants elsewhere, and recognised the dangers associated with Ferdinand's fervent Catholicism, but accepted the lack of alternatives. The Thirty Years’ War, from 1618-1648, was a tumultuous period of battles, revolt, famine, disease, and religious conflict in Europe. Brandenburg-Prussia (1631–1635)[note 1] It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, resulting in millions of casualties. This was the reason behind Spanish involvement in the Jülich dispute; by 1618, the only part not controlled by Spain ran through the Electoral Palatinate. Occasionally it meant full-scale conflict, such as the 1583 to 1588 Cologne War, caused by the conversion to Calvinism of the Prince Elector, Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg. This threatened both Lutherans and Calvinists, paralysed the Diet and removed the perception of Imperial neutrality. This period, known as the Thirty Years’ War, began with a religious dispute. [35] Gabriel Bethlen, Calvinist Prince of Transylvania, invaded Hungary with Ottoman support, although the Habsburgs persuaded them to avoid direct involvement, helped by the outbreak of hostilities with Poland in 1620, followed by the 1623 to 1639 war with Persia. The Imperial army under Gallas retreated into Bohemia, pursued by Torstenson, whose victory at Jankau in March 1645 allowed him to threaten both Prague and Vienna. Rulers of the 224 German states could choose the religion (Lutheranism or Catholicism) of their realms according to their consciences, and compel their subjects to follow that faith (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio). Disputes within the Empire drew in outside powers, many of whom held Imperial territories, including the Dutch Prince of Orange, hereditary ruler of Nassau-Dillenburg. (history documentary)", "The 30 Years' War (1618–48) and the Second Defenestration of Prague – Professor Peter Wilson", Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thirty_Years%27_War&oldid=995360779, 17th-century military history of the Kingdom of England, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from June 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Thirty Years' War is briefly referenced in the survival horror game. 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