Therefore, unless along with felicity such an unmoving stability be attained, he is not yet happy, for his natural desire is not yet at rest. Therefore, the soul does not, through itself, know concerning itself what it is. Therefore, ultimate felicity cannot lie in the operation of art. And this is why the sense powers, subject to fatigue in their actions because of the changing of the bodily organs by sense objects, are corrupted, even by the best of such objects. But, since Aristotle saw that there is no other knowledge for man in this life than through the speculative sciences, he maintained that man does not achieve perfect felicity, but only a limited kind. But the will moves the intellect rather accidentally, that is, in so far as the act of understanding is itself apprehended as good, and so is desired by the will, with the result that the intellect actually understands. On this account, too, of all other lives the contemplative is more approved in divine Scripture, when our Lord says: “Mary has chosen the better part,” namely, the contemplation of truth, “which shall not be taken from her” (Luke 10:42) . For, if felicity is an object of the will because it has the rational character of a highest good, that does not make it substantially an act of the will, as the first argument implied. And since corporeal vision is not accomplished without light, those things whereby intellectual vision is perfected take on the name fight. But we have shown that there is no succession in the aforesaid vision; instead, all things that are seen through it are seen at once, and in one view. [4] Besides, delight seems to be so much an object of desire for its own sake that it is never desired for the sake of something else; indeed, it is foolish to ask a person why he wishes to be delighted. Therefore, since the power of divine providence is the greatest, it must extend its operation to its most distant effects through some intermediaries. Therefore, human felicity does not consist in goods of the body. [10] Therefore, since we have treated of the perfection of the divine nature in Book One, and of the perfection of His power inasmuch as He is the Maker and Lord of all things in Book Two, there remains to be treated in this third Book His perfect authority or dignity, inasmuch as He is the End and Ruler of all things. [8] Again, other things, particularly lower ones, are ordered to man’s good as an end. Chapter 33 He says in Book IX of The Trinity that “we see with the vision of the mind, in the eternal truth, from which all temporal things have been made, the form in accord with which we exist, and in accord with which we perform any action by true and right reason, either within ourselves or in bodies, and as a result of this we have with us a conception and a true knowledge of things.” He also says in Book VII of the Confessions: “Suppose both of us see that what you say is true, and both of us see that what I say is true: where, I ask, do we see it? For in that way all things are arranged for the best, inasmuch as each thing is ordered to all the goods that can naturally come from it. So, we have to say that every agent acts by the divine power. So, if operations are not the ultimate end, the pleasures that result from them are not the ultimate end, either; nor are they concomitant with the ultimate end. Philosophy is the love of wisdom. [5] Moreover, evil is found to be an accidental cause in a discursive examination of all types of cause. Hence, no one should get the impression that the latter is moved violently, as is the case with heavy and light bodies that are moved by us through understanding. The first mover does not move fewer things, but more, than the secondary movers, for the latter do not move other things without the first. Consequently, the knowledge concerning the soul’s understanding must be used as a starting point for all that we learn about separate substances. Therefore, this vision also consists in a participation in eternity. [11] However, in the moral order, the situation seems to be different. So, if to understand separate substances be a perfection of the operation of the habitual intellect, it follows that the habitual intellect understands separate substances at some point in time. Consequently, that it could in no way understand separate substances is quite necessary, since it could not be separate in its own being. Moreover, good uses of these cannot fail to be made, except in rare instances, because things that are from nature produce their effects in all cases, or frequently. The first of these is that of the highest God, Who primarily and above all provides for His own things, that is, for all things spiritual and intellectual, but subsequently for the whole world, as far as genera and species go, and the universal causes which are the celestial bodies. For God Himself understands His own substance through His own essence; and this is His felicity. Now, if there were any body possessed of infinite dimensive quantity, it would have to be everywhere. So, either the believer’s judgment is false or else the proposer must have more perfect knowledge of the things proposed. [1] Similarly, neither can worldly power be man’s highest good, since in its attainment, also, fortune can play a most important part. [13] So, too, the difficulty of some people is solved; namely, whether evil actions are from God. Now, felicity is a definite common good, which many people can attain, “unless they are defective,” as Aristotle puts it, in Ethics I [9: 1099b 19]. Now, because a thing is known from the point of view of what it is, that thing is also known in distinction from others; consequently, the definition which signifies what a thing is distinguishes the thing defined from all else. The same may be said of virtuous and vicious acts. Therefore, evil is a definite essence and nature. THAT MAN’S ULTIMATE FELICITY DOES NOT LIE IN ACTS OF THE MORAL VIRTUES Therefore, the end of the intellect is the end of all human actions. Thus, things which imply a privation admit of increase or decrease in degree, as do the unequal and the dissimilar. The intellect is able to go on to infinity in its act of understanding; this is why the mathematical species of numbers and figures are called infinite. Similarly, evil cannot be the agent, since anything that acts does so according as it is in act and has form. Therefore, man is the end of the whole order of generation. Even these corruptible bodies are perfectly subject to His power, just as they are created by God Himself. Hence, it will not be necessary for the act of understanding -through the agent intellect to be the cause, for us, of our ,capacity to understand separate substances; otherwise, we would always understand them. So, if this came about apart from the intention of the natural agent, it would be by chance or by luck. And this is plainly false. in regard to the last and most perfect act that matter can attain, the inclination of matter whereby it desires form must be inclined as toward the ultimate end of generation. For he maintains that the understanding of one thing, say a horse, is plurally present in me and in you, simply by means of a multiplication of spiritual species which are diversified in me and in you. Therefore, each one who sees the divine substance knows all the things mentioned above. 20:6). [9] And thus, the possible intellect, if it be granted that it is united with the body in being, cannot understand separate substances. Therefore, the fact that heavy bodies have slower unnatural motion when they have larger quantity does not show that quantity impedes action, but that it helps to increase it. It is as if forms existing in matter were certain participations in those forms which exist without matter. And this characteristic applies only to God, for, since the true is consequent on being, that alone is its own truth which is its own being. But intellectual substances are ruled by the higher ones, since the disposition of divine providence descends proportionally to the lowest, as we have said already. But in this life this does not happen to anyone who is a mere man, nor could it happen, since we are not able to know in this life the separate substances, and they are most intelligible, as has been shown. Now, it works in the same way in the realm of artifacts. [5] Moreover, the ultimate end is the noblest appurtenance of a thing; in fact, the term means the best. So, also, we oppose the view of those who said: “The Lord has forsaken the earth, and the Lord does not see” (Ez. The fact, then, that separate substances know that God is the cause of all things whose substances they see, does not mean that natural desire comes to rest in them, unless they also see the substance of God Himself. Nor, indeed, may it cease to see because of a removal of the object, for the object, which is God, is always existing in the same way; nor is He far removed from us, unless by virtue of our removal from Him. In turn, the vegetative soul is in potency to a sensitive soul, and a sensitive one to an intellectual one. [6] Again, man naturally shrinks from death, and is sorrowful at its prospect, not only at the instant when he feels its threat and tries to avoid it, but even when he thinks back upon it. So, according to this, He must be the immediate overseer of these things. For instance, blindness, or any other sort of privation, is said to exist because an animal is blinded by its blindness. So, it is manifest that the divine essence may be related to the created intellect as an intelligible species by which it understands, but this does not apply to the essence of any other separate substance. Of course, the quiddity of a genus or species of sensible things cannot be separate in actual being from a given material individual, unless, perhaps, we maintain with the Platonists separate forms of things, but this has been disproved by Aristotle. Now, since evil could not be the product of a good thing, it is impossible for any being, as a being, to be evil. Chapter 74 His measure is longer than the earth, and broader than the sea.” Indeed, these things are not said as though God were great in quantitative dimensions, but because His power is not limited to all things which are seen to be great, for, on the contrary, He can make even greater things. So, our intellect is by nature capable of understanding a quiddity for which the understanding is one among all men. [5] Moreover, the ultimate in goodness and perfection among the things to which the power of a secondary agent extends is that which it can do by the power of the primary agent, for the perfection of the power of the secondary agent is due to the primary agent. According as it acts, so does it intend the end. [7] Again, every evil has an accidental cause, as we have proved. So, the things that are nearest to immutability should be movers of the rest. But all moral operations can be ordered to something else. potency, even though it then ceases to have the other form which it actually possessed before, for this is the way that matter may receive in succession all the forms to which it is potential, so that its entire potentiality may be successively reduced to act, which could not be done all at once. Now, it has been said that two principles precede the will in the order of moral actions: namely, the apprehensive power, and the object apprehended, which is the end. For instance, the larger a hot body is, granting equal intensity of heat, the more is it able to give off heat; and granting equal degree of weight, the bigger a heavy body is, the more rapidly will it be moved by natural motion; that is why it is moved more slowly by unnatural motion. Now, there is no question that intellectual agents act for the sake of an end, because they think ahead of time in their intellects of the things which they achieve through action; and their action stems from such preconception. Therefore, it does not pertain to the character of providence to exclude liberty of will. But the being of separate substance is other than its substance, as we proved in Book Two [52]. [13] Moreover, everything that is in potency tends to proceed into act. If, then, man’s highest good lay in these things, man would not be the most excellent of animals; which is obviously false. It has been shown above that the ultimate end of all things, to which they tend, is God. Therefore, the human intellect reaches God as its end, through an act of understanding. For, if he is still moved onward to something else, he does not yet have the end in which he may rest. The manuscript consists of strips of parchment, of various shades of colour, contained in an old And this diversity arises from the fact that things are differently related to knowledge. Indeed, that which has a deformity within its very definition cannot be an end to which a nature tends. [1] From this conclusion some men have taken the opportunity to fall into error, thinking that no creature has an active role in the production of natural effects. So, if all generation and corruption were removed as a result of taking away the contingency of things, as we showed, the consequence would be that even motion would be taken away from things, and so would all movable things. [4] Besides, since man is man by virtue of his possession of reason, his proper good which is felicity should be in accord with what is appropriate to reason. Yet, if we consider the matter carefully, we shall find the two orders similar from one point of view, and dissimilar from another. THAT HUMAN FELICITY DOES NOT CONSIST IN PLEASURES OF THE FLESH Now, the will is such a power, for the object of appetition moves the appetite. [8] Indeed, it is not difficult to answer these arguments. Now, this can be none other than the most noble object of knowledge, which is God. Instead, He is in all things in the fashion of an agent cause. So, it does not seem to be possible to say that God produces the same effects that natural agents produce. Or, rather, this vision exceeds all natural capacity, as we have shown. [1] In the same way, it is also apparent that man’s highest good does not lie in the goods of his sensitive part. [1] From this consideration it is apparent that the created intellect becomes a partaker in the eternal life through this vision. [3] Again, if the soul understands what it is, through itself, and if every man has a soul, then every man knows what soul is. But the gaining of honor is not within the power of any man; rather, it is in the power of the one who gives the honor. Now, it is impossible for matter to exist under privation alone, but for it to exist under a form is possible. [2] Now, according to Tully, glory is “widespread repute accompanied by praise of a person.” And according to Ambrose, it is “an illustrious reputation accompanied by praise.” Now, men desire to become known in connection with some sort of praise and renown, for the purpose of being honored by those who know them. Chapter 24 [3] Again, not all creatures are established on one level of goodness. But it pertains to the providence of the governor to preserve perfection in the things governed, and not to decrease it. THAT MAN’S FELICITY DOES NOT CONSIST IN RICHES We have pointed out in Book Two [15] that no created substance is its own act of being. For there is numerically the same first subject for all corporeal motions, but the ends are different. Therefore, the agent intellect will be one existing being with man, not one accidentally, for then the agent intellect would be not a substance but an accident, as is the case when a thing that is one being accidentally is made from color and a body. [5] In regard to the way which involves movers that actively move, the end of their motion is to attain the divine likeness by being the causes of others. But the lower ones have particular powers that are capable of functioning through certain bodily organs, and so they must be united with bodies. Therefore, the created intellect could not be elevated by any adventitious light so as to see the divine substance. Therefore, God cannot be the end of things in this way, as something produced, but only as something pre-existing that is to be attained. Now, acts of liberality and magnificence, which have to do with money, are more praiseworthy in a situation in which money is spent than in one in which it is saved. Chapter 45 [7] Now, in the order of nature, this accidental aspect can be found either on the side of the agent or of the effect. So, it must be that every agent in acting intends an end, sometimes the action itself, sometimes a thing produced by the action. Chapter 15 And so, the arrangement of kingdoms and the changing of domination from one people to another ought to belong to the ministry of this order. As a consequence, then, each thing is good because it possesses actual being. Consequently, Boethius says in his book, The Trinity, that “forms which are in matter have come from forms which are without matter.” And on this point, Plato’s statement is verified, that forms separated from matter are the principles of forms that are in it. But the ability to make an actual thing results from being actually existent, as is evident in the case of God, for He is pure act and is also the first cause of being for all things, as we showed above. Hence the answer to the sixth objection is clear. And also it is said that there is “the same measure for man and for angel” (Apoc. But by the immensity of His power He touches upon all things that are in place, for He is the universal cause of being, as we said. Indeed, it is the prerogative of the one who establishes the laws to interpret them and issue dispensations from them. And thus, its process of generation must be completed at some time, unless there be an impediment, because no process of generation tends to an indefinite termination. Chapter 31 Even if the action itself be the end, it is clear that it is a secondary perfection of the agent. In fact, He could not do this if He did not consider the order of these singulars. These are called Cherubim, which means “fullness of knowledge.” Indeed, knowledge is made perfect through the form of the knowable object. Now, this should be observed as obtaining in the same way in the order of intelligible being as it does in substantial or physical being. Of course, it would be a matter of chance if this result followed in but few cases. 93:14)”For in His hand are all the ends of the earth, and the heights of the mountains are His. [1] It is evident, next, that God is the cause enabling all operating agents to operate. For, as operation is consequent upon substance, so also is the perfection of operation a result of the perfection of substance. Now, they are the causes of others by the fact that they cause generation and corruption and other changes in these lower things. Hence it is said: “I understand that man can find no reason of all those works of God” (Eccle. [5] Moreover, in the case of beings that act as a result of understanding or of some sort of sense judgment, intention is a consequence of apprehension, for the intention tends to what is apprehended as an end. Therefore, the felicity of man should not be identified with honors. [3] Now, since according to his opinion the possible intellect cannot understand separate substances, as has already been said, he thought that we will understand separate substances through the habitual understanding, in so far as the agent intellect, which he supposes to be a separate substance, becomes the form of the habitual understanding, and a form for us ourselves. [5] Moreover, in every ordered series of ends the ultimate end must be the end of all preceding ends. “For the Lord will not cast off His people” (Ps. THAT THOSE WHO SEE GOD WILL SEE HIM PERPETUALLY As a result, since anything is perfect to the extent that it is good, this divine being is His perfect goodness. Now, to rule or govern by providence is simply to move things toward an end through understanding. So, that whereby a thing chiefly becomes like God is its ultimate end. But, otherwise, it will be an evil relative to something, and not in the unqualified sense. This occurs in the sciences which demonstrate the cause through the effect. In fact, this statement has some truth, since it is impossible for a probable statement to be entirely false. Now, the best operation of man, according to what is proper to man, lies in a relationship to the most perfect object. But the higher a cause is, the greater is its power; and so, its causality applies to a greater number of things. Now, we call what is perfect a good. So, too, the posterior end is the cause of the preceding end being intended as an end, for a thing is not moved toward a proximate end unless for the sake of a last end. [8] Hence it is said: “God created, that all things might be” (Wis. 1:14). But contingency is not incompatible with providence, nor are chance or fortune or voluntary action, as we have shown. So, things are not ordered to God as to an end for which something may be obtained, but rather so that they may attain Himself from Himself, according to their measure, since He is their end. But, as a matter of fact, this is so because of his own deficiency, either because handdoes not know the circumstances for the individual details, or because handis not able to think out the order for all, by virtue of the effort and length of time that might be needed. For, in the same way, prime matter tends toward its perfection by actually acquiring a form to which it was previously in. This is evident in an army: all divisions of an army and their functions are ordered to the commander’s good as an ultimate end, and this is victory. But, since providence has the function of ordering things to their end, both the ends and the things that are related to an end must be a matter of concern to providence. So, he naturally desires to know its cause, which is God alone, as we proved in Book Two [15]. [6] Moreover, whatever exceeds the limitations of a nature cannot accrue to it except through the action of another being. [1] It is also clear from the foregoing that the highest good for man, that is felicity, does not lie in honors. According as there is added a privation of a contrary form, and a contrary end, to a form and an end (which have the rational character of good and are true principles of action) the action that results from such a form and end is attributed to the privation and the evil. [7] Again, there is no fault to be found, except in the case of things that are for the sake of an end. So, in moral matters, that which is specified by an end that is in accord with reason is called good specifically; and that which is specified by an end contrary to the rational end is termed evil specifically. [1] Hence, since separate substances cannot be known by us in this life in the preceding ways, the question remains whether we may understand these separate substances in any way during this life. If, then, the perfection of action also follows upon the completion of generation, it must also be the case that perfect operation accompanies the generated things, either always, or in the majority of cases. THAT EVIL IS AN ACCIDENTAL CAUSE [6] Furthermore, an agent cause must be simultaneous with its proximate and immediate effect. On the other hand, if it lacks the power to transfer this good to others, it continues to keep it exclusively. [8] Furthermore, the more a thing is desired and loved, the more does its loss bring sorrow and sadness. Therefore, if the motion of the heavens were natural, since it tends westward naturally, it would return to the east in the manner of a thing that recedes from the west by a motion against nature. 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